MSM – 8 ounce package

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MSM 8 ounce package is a good deal – MSM … Natural Sulfur Compound Found In All Living Things. Works Wonders For Arthritis, Builds healthy Flexible Cells, and Used For Overall Body Balance.

MSM belongs to a family of compounds that are abundant in the food chains of terrestrial and ocean life. This sulfur-containing nutrient is the stable end product of the methyl-S-methane series of compounds that provide bioavailable sulfur to as many as 85% of all living organisms. These compounds—principally dimethyl sulfide (DMS)—are among the Earth’s few primary sources for sulfur.

The sulfur cycle begins in the ocean, where algae and phytoplankton release sulfur compounds, called tertiary dimethylsulfonium salts. These salts are transformed to DMS, a highly volatile compound. Oceanic DMS is the major natural source of sulfur to the atmosphere and contributes both to the tropospheric sulfur burden and to particle formation and growth in the atmosphere.

MSM Safety

MSM has been shown to be safe by several studies. In thirty years there have been no reported adverse events to MSM. It’s also important to note that sulfa allergies do not apply to MSM.

Some Clinical studies of MMS

Human Clinical Trials
Kim LS, Axelrod LJ, Howard P, Buratovich N, Waters RF. Efficacy of methylsulfonyl-methane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2006;14:286-94.
Southwest College Research Institute, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine & Health Sciences, Tempe, AZ, USA. [Abstract on PubMed]

In 2004, Kim et al conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the effects of distilled MSM on mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee. Participants received 3,000 mg twice daily of either placebo or MSM (OptiMSM, Bergstrom Nutrition, Vancouver, WA)) for 12 weeks. Patients were evaluated using standardized clinical efficacy scales as well as for several secondary endpoints, adverse events, and clinical laboratory markers. Compared to placebo, those taking MSM had statistically significant reductions in pain and in difficulty performing activities of daily living. Statistically significant reductions in serum homocysteine (a risk factor for cardiovascular disease) and urinary malondialdehyde (a marker of oxidative stress) were also observed. There were no significant adverse events in the study.

Engelke UF, Tangerman A, Willemsen MA, et al. Dimethyl sulfone [MSM] in human cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma confirmed by one-dimensional (1)H and two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C NMR. NMR Bio Med 2005;18:33l-6.
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Laboratory of Pediatrics and Neurology, L-6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. [Abstract on PubMed]

(1)H-NMR spectroscopy at 500 MHz was used to confirm that a previously unidentified singlet resonance at 3.14 ppm in the spectra of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma samples corresponds to dimethyl sulfone (DMSO(2)). A triple resonance inverse cryogenic NMR probe, with pre-amplifier and the RF-coils cooled to low temperature, was used to obtain an (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectrum of CSF containing 8 microM (753 ng/ml) DMSO(2). The (1)H-(13)C correlation signal for DMSO(2) was assigned by comparison with the spectrum from an authentic reference sample. In plasma and CSF from healthy controls, the concentration of DMSO(2) ranged between 0 and 25 micromol/l. The concentration of DMSO(2) in plasma from three of four patients with severe methionine adenosyltransferase I/III (MAT I/III) deficiency was about twice the maximum observed for controls. Thus, DMSO(2) occurs as a regular metabolite at low micromolar concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. It derives from dietary sources, from intestinal bacterial metabolism and from human endogenous methanethiol metabolism. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Barrager E, Veltmann JR, Schauss AG, Schiller RN. A multi-centered, open label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. J Altern Complement Med 2002;8:167-74.

In a open-label study of 55 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR; hayfever), MSM at 2600mg/day significantly reduced upper and total respiratory symptoms within 7 days; lower respiratory symptoms were significantly improved from baseline by week 3. No significant changes were observed in plasma IgE or histamine levels. Few side effects were associated with the use of MSM and no patient dropped out of the study due to adverse reactions. Energy levels increased significantly by day 14. The results suggest that MSM may be an efficacious in reducing symptoms associated with SAR.

Blum JM, Blum RI. The effect of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the control of snoring. Integrative Medicine 2004;3(6)24-30.
Childs SJ. Dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. Urol Clin North Am 1994;21:85-8.

Dr. Childs presents six case studies on the use of intravesicular MSM for interstitial cystitis in patients who were refractory to previous therapy.

Lawrence RM. Methylsulfonylmethane (M.S.M.) A double-blind study of its use in degenerative arthritis. Int J Anti-Aging Med 1998;1(1):50 [abstract].

In this abstract, Lawrence presented data on a “preliminary study” in which patients suffering from degenerative arthritis were treated with either 2,250 mg per day of MSM (Adaptin, no manufacturer specified) or placebo for an unspecified length of time. Sixteen patients were reportedly enrolled in the study. Eight received MSM and six received placebo. The author does not indicate what treatment, if any, was administered to the two remaining patients. Lawrence reported “a better than 80 percent control of pain within six weeks of beginning the study.” The title of the abstract indicates that a double-blind protocol was followed.

Usha PR, Naidu MUR. Randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis. Clin Drug Invest 2004; 24:353-63.

Randomized, double-blind trial comparing MSM, glucosamine, both, or placebo for osteoarthritis of the knee. Approximately 30 patients per group. Dose was 1,500 mg per day for 12 weeks. The efficacy parameters studied were the pain index, the swelling index, visual analogue scale pain intensity, 15m walking time, the Lequesne index, and consumption of rescue medicine. There were statistically significant decreases in pain with Glu and with MSM respectively. The combination treatment resulted in a more significant decrease in the mean pain index than either treatment alone. Conclusion: Glu, MSM and their combination produced an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in osteoarthritis. Combination therapy showed better efficacy in reducing pain and swelling and in improving the functional ability of joints than the individual agents.

Vidyasagar S, Mukhyaprana P, Shashikiran U,et al. Efficacy and Tolerability of glucosamine chondroitin sulphate – methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) in osteoarthritis of knee in Indian patients. Iran J Pharmacol Ther 2004;3:61-5.
Isolation; presence in nature, in animals and humans
Pearson TW, Dawson HJ, Lackey HB. Natural occurring levels of dimethyl sulfoxide in selected fruits, vegetables, grains and beverages. J Agric Food Chem 1981; 29:1019-21.

Performed at Crown-Zellerbach, this study documents the presence of MSM (DMSO2; Me2SO2) in asparagus, alfalfa, beets, cabbage, corn, cucumber, oats, swiss chard, tomatoes, apples, raspberry, beer, coffee, milk and tea.

Pfiffner JJ, North HB. Dimethyl sulfone: A constituent of the adrenal gland. J Biol Chem 1940;134:781-2.

From the research labs of Parke-Davis, one of the earliest isolations of dimethyl sulfone (1940). Originally isolated from cattle blood, this study found MSM in fresh beef glands.

Williams KIH, Burstein SH, Layne DS. Dimethyl sulfone: isolation from cows’ milk. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1966;122:865-6.

Supported in part by the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases and performed at the Worcester Foundation for Experimental Biology, this study isolated MSM from cow’s milk and noted that urinary excretion of MSM approximated 5-10mg/24 hours in humans.

Williams KIH, Burstein SH, Layne DS. Dimethyl Sulfone:  Isolation from human urine. Arch Biochem Biophys 1966;113:251-2.

MSM is isolated in human urine. In samples from 4 women and 4 men, the rate of excretion varied from 4mg to 11mg. The authors speculate that the MSM excreted may be derived from dietary sources or a product of the metabolism of sulfur containing amino acids.

Williams KIH, Burstein SH, Layne. Metabolism of dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and dimethyl sulfone in the rabbit. Arch Biochem Biophys 1966;117:84-7.
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Animal Studies
David Amiel, PhD; Robert M Healey, BS, MBA and Yasushi Oshima, MD, PhD, Assessment of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on the development of osteoarthritis (OA): An animal study FASEB J. 2008 22:1094.3.

This study examined the effects of ultra pure methylsulfonylmethane (OptiMSM) on osteoarthritis of the knee. A prior study showed that while OptiMSM is clinically effective, the mechanism remained enigmatic. In this study, the right knee ACL was transected (ACLT) in mature NZW rabbits (n=10) (2). Five weeks after ACLT an MSM constant delivery system to the joint was created by implanting an Alzet osmotic pump. Controls received no other treatment. Animals were sacrificed 9 wks postop, and OA grading of the femoral surface was performed: Grade-I (G-1): intact surface; Grade-II (G-II): minimal fibrillation; Grade-III (G-III): overt fibrillation; and Grade-IV (G-IV): erosion of articular cartilage surface (2). Results showed 2 G-III and 1 G-IV (avg 3.3) in control. The MSM-treated group showed 1 G-I, 3 G-II, 1 G-III, and 2 G-IV (avg 2.6). Expression of type II collagen and aggrecan showed no difference between control and MSM, yet expression of TNF-a in both cartilage and synovial tissue was decreased by MSM (p<0.01). MSM preserved the articular cartilage surface during OA development and reduced inflammation (i.e. TNF-a) in both cartilage and synovium.

Robert A DiSilvestro, David J DiSilvestro, and Daniel J DiSilvestro, Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) Intake in Mice Produces Elevated Liver Glutathione and Partially Protects Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Liver Injury FASEB J. 2008 22:445.8.

MSM’s antioxidant actions have been proposed based mostly on indirect evidence. For example, antioxidant actions in vivo of a related compound, DMSO, may be produced by MSM formed in vivo from DMSO. Thus, a study was done in mice to determine whether oral intake of OptiMSM could affect tissue levels of an internal sulfur-containing antioxidant, glutathione, and resistance to chemically-induced oxidant stress. MSM administration (5 weeks, 80 mg/100 ml drinking water) produced a statistically significant increase in liver glutathione (mean increase of 78%). A similar effect was not seen in lung or skeletal muscle. In addition, MSM partially inhibited liver injury after injection of carbon tetrachloride, which induces liver oxidant stress (injury evaluation based on blood indexes of hepatic injury). These results indicate the need for further testing for MSM antioxidant actions in vivo, and to explore the mechanism of elevated glutathione.

Magnuson, B.A., Appleton, J., Ryan, B., Matulka, R.A., Oral Developmental Toxicity Study of Methylsulfonylmethane in Rats, Food and Chemical Toxicology (2006), doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2006.12.003

The objective of these studies was to determine the developmental toxicity potential of MSM when administered orally to pregnant rats during the period of major organogenesis and histogenesis. In a preliminary dose-finding study, distilled MSM microprill (i.e., microspherical pellets of MSM) was administered by oral gavage at dose levels of 0 (vehicle control), 50, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg/day to 8-9 sperm-positive female Sprague-Dawley rats/group/day on gestation days 6 through 20. No evidence of maternal or fetal toxicity was observed. For the definitive developmental study, four groups of 24-25 timed-bred primiparous female rats were administered 0, 50, 500, or 1000 mg MSM/kg/day via gavage on gestation days 6 through 20. Maternal feed consumption, body weight, body weight gain, uterus weight and corrected body weight/body weight gain were unaffected by treatment. No evidence of maternal toxicity, and no significant differences in litter viability, litter size, or litter body weight were detected. Fetal evaluations failed to show any biologically significant increase in the incidence of anomalies in the MSM treated groups, and no malformations were seen in any of the fetuses. No evidence of fetal mortality, alterations to growth, or structural alterations were observed in the fetuses of dams administered 50 to 1000 mg/kg/day. Therefore, under the conditions of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for maternal and developmental toxicity was 1000 mg/kg/day.

Magnuson, B.A., Appleton, J., Ames, B.A., Pharmacokinetics and Distribution of [35S]Methylsulfonylmethane following Oral Administration to Rats, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2006)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile and distribution of radiolabeled MSM in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a single oral dose of [35S]MSM (500 mg/kg), and blood levels of radioactivity were determined at different time points for up to 48 h. Tissue levels of radioactivity at 48 and 120 h and urine and fecal radioactivity levels were measured at different time points for up to 120 h following [35S]MSM administration to rats. Oral [35S]MSM was rapidly and efficiently absorbed with a mean tmax of 2.1 h, Cmax of 622 µg equiv/mL, and AUC0-inf of 15124 h.µg equiv/mL. The t1/2 was 12.2 h. Soft tissue distribution of radioactivity indicated a fairly homogeneous distribution throughout the body with relatively lower concentrations in skin and bone. Approximately 85.8% of the dose was recovered in the urine after 120 h, whereas only 3% was found in the feces. No quantifiable levels of radioactivity were found in any tissues after 120 h, indicating complete elimination of [35S]MSM. The results of this study suggest that [35S]MSM is rapidly absorbed, well distributed, and completely excreted from the body.

Richmond VL. Incorporation of methylsulfonylmethane sulfur into guinea pig serum proteins. Life Sci 1986;39:263-8.
Wang M-Y, Anderson G, Nowicki D. Preventive effect of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) at the induction stage of mammary carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female SD rats. Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 2003; 44(8):787 [Abstract #3445].
Wang M-Y, Anderson GL, Nowicki D. Synergistic effect of Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on mammary breast cancer prevention at the initiation stage of chemical carcinogenesis induced by DMBA in female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2003;12:1354S.
Carlson, RP [study director]. Bergstrom Nutrition rat carrageenan air pouch model No. 1. White Eagle Toxicology Laboratories [Unpublished: data on file]. (Sponsored by Bergstrom Nutrition).

Anti-inflammatory actions of MSM observed in an experimental rat study in 2001. MSM compared to indomethacin in a rat carrageenan air pouch model. The objective of the study was to determine whether MSM inhibited leukocyte influx and edema in an acute inflammation model. MSM was administered orally (300 or 1,000 mg/kg for three days) to male CD Charles River rats, in which inflammation was produced with injections of carrageenan.  Oral MSM at 1,000mg/kg, administered for two days prior and up to two hours prior to carrageenan injections inhibited the total number of leukocytes migrating into the pouch at four hours by 26%. The 300mg/kg dose inhibited leukocyte infiltration by 18%. These results did not reach statistical significance, possibly due to the small number of animals studied, or because the anti-inflammatory effects of MSM are more likely to be demonstrated in a chronic inflammation model.

Gerhards E, Gibian H. The metabolism of dimethyl sulfoxide and its metabolic effects in man and animals. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1967;141:65-76.

Metabolism of DMSO, including its oxidation to MSM, in the human. Key factoid: 15% of ingested DMSO is rapidly oxidized to DMSO2 (MSM) in vivo, by hepatic microsomes in the presence of NADPH2 and molecular oxygen.

This statement has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.

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